Photo of Mayank Singh

Mayank Singh is an Associate in the Dispute Resolution Practice at the Delhi NCR office of Cyril Amarchand Mangaldas. He is a graduate from NLSIU Bangalore, and now focuses on arbitration, civil and commercial disputes. He can be reached at


Protection Laws for alleged deficiency in services


An important question on whether advocates are liable for alleged deficiency in services under the Indian Consumer Protection Act has been put to rest by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India. In a significant ruling, the Hon’ble Supreme Court, vide its recent judgment in Bar of Indian Lawyers v D.K. Gandhi PS National Institute of Communicable Diseases and Anr.[1],has held that advocates would not be covered under the ambit of Consumer Protection Act, 1986 (“CPA 1986”), as re-enacted by the Consumer Protection Act 2019 (“CPA 2019”) (‘collectively referred as Acts/ consumer law framework’). Until the said decision, there was no definite pronouncement on the concerned issue.Continue Reading Advocates no longer liable under Consumer Protection Laws for alleged deficiency in services

Commercial Purchases: Conundrum under Consumer Protection Laws

Introduction: Commercial Enterprise and Its Commercial Purpose

The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 (“Act”), and the amended Consumer Protection Act, 2019 (“New Act”), are the go-to sources of reference for consumer disputes and conflicts. The Section 2(1)(d) of the Act and Section 2(7) of the New Act both define who “is” and “is not” a “consumer”. Both Acts state that a customer is any person who purchases goods or avails services for any consideration; however, any person purchasing goods or availing services for resale or any commercial purpose[1] to make profit/gain is not a consumer. An explanation to the provisions clarifies that despite buying goods or availing services a person would still be classified as a consumer (under both the Acts) if these goods or services constitute a source of livelihood by means of self-employment.Continue Reading Commercial Purchases: Conundrum under Consumer Protection Laws