Section 120B of IPC cannot be treated as a standalone offence to attract prosecution under PMLA: Supreme Court

INTRODUCTION

In a recent judgement of Pavana Dibbur v. The Directorate of Enforcement[1], the Hon’ble Supreme Court has held that the offence of criminal conspiracy punishable under Section 120B of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (“IPC”), will be attributed as a scheduled offence under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (“PMLA / Act”), only if the alleged criminal conspiracy is associated with committing of a scheduled offence, i.e. an offence specifically included in the Schedule to the PMLA. The Hon’ble Court held that if the offence of alleged criminal conspiracy is related to any other offence, which does not form a part of the Schedule to the PMLA, then the alleged criminal conspiracy by itself shall not be considered as a “scheduled offence” under the regime of the PMLA and hence, no person can be held liable and be prosecuted for it.[2]Continue Reading Section 120B of IPC cannot be treated as a standalone offence to attract prosecution under PMLA: Supreme Court

Ensuring Transparency: The Imperative of Mandatory Furnishing of Written Grounds of Arrest by the Enforcement Directorate

Background:

In the realm of law enforcement, transparency and accountability are indispensable pillars upholding the democratic values of a society. The Directorate of Enforcement (“ED”), tasked with investigating and prosecuting economic offenses, plays a vital role in maintaining financial integrity. However, concerns surrounding the lack of transparency in some of the arrests made by the ED have been raised.Continue Reading Ensuring Transparency: The Imperative of Mandatory Furnishing of Written Grounds of Arrest by the Enforcement Directorate

truth or illusion? - Criminal Liability of Digital Intermediaries in the age of deepfakes

Introduction

A deepfake connotes a highly realistic synthetic media of a real person, generated by an Artificial Intelligence. While a parallel can be drawn between photo-alteration technology and deepfakes, the latter is inherently disingenuous because it makes it difficult to ascertain doctoring. The gravity of leaving this technology unregulated is severe because it can be used to disseminate misinformation with drastic political, reputational and financial implications.Continue Reading Truth or Illusion? – Criminal Liability of Digital Intermediaries in the age of Deepfakes

Till Death Do Us Part? Abatement of Criminal Revision, Appeals on Death of Accused.

INTRODUCTION

It is trite law that while criminal proceedings operate in rem, the consequence of such proceedings (viz. imprisonment) impacts the liberties of individual person(s). It is equally well settled that legal heirs of an accused/ convict cannot be made to serve imprisonment on the death of the accused/ convict. This begs the question whether the demise of the individual also sounds the death knell on the connected criminal proceedings against him. In the present article, we explore whether the criminal appellate/ revisional proceedings would abate ipso facto on the death of the accused/ convict.Continue Reading Till Death Do Us Part? Abatement of Criminal Revision, Appeals on Death of Accused

Right to Be Informed: Communicate Written Grounds of Arrest , SC Tells ED

The Supreme Court of India has recently taken important strides towards protecting personal liberty and curbing indiscriminate exercise of power by the Directorate of Enforcement (“ED”). In a fresh judgment in Pankaj Bansal v. Union of India[1], the Supreme Court has criticised disparate procedures being used by various officers of the ED across the country while arresting a person accused of committing an offence under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (“PMLA”), mandating that the provision of written grounds of arrest be provided to the arrested person as a matter of course and without exception.Continue Reading Right to Be Informed: Communicate Written Grounds of Arrest, SC Tells ED

PMLA SECOND AMENDMENT RULES, 2023: PLUGGING THE LOOPHOLE

The Ministry of Finance issued a notification on September 04, 2023, to amend the Prevention of Money Laundering (Maintenance of Records) Rules, 2005 (“Rules”), to enhance clarity and stringency of money laundering prevention efforts. The amendment seeks to ensure stricter compliance by reporting authorities to keep a check on money laundering and terror financing.Continue Reading PMLA Second Amendment Rules, 2023: Plugging The Loophole

Significance of Providing Un-Relied Documents to Accused An Indicator of a Fair Trial

One of the key facets of the criminal law regime is that an individual/ entity should be given a fair and transparent trial. Sections 207 and 208 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (“CrPC”) are in furtherance to the said principle, which relate to providing copies of police report and other documents to accused persons.Continue Reading Significance of Providing Un-Relied Documents to Accused: An Indicator of a Fair Trial